Flora

National Park "Belovezhskaya Pushcha" is one of the largest forests of Europe plains, which has preserved to this day in a relatively untouched state. Its territory is divided by the state border into two parts - Belarusian and Polish.
Regarding to flora Belovezhskaya Pushcha is a unique region, where the Eurasian coniferous forest zone closely approaches the European broad-leaved one, and the taiga gives way to nemoral forests.
Geographical location, climatic and soil-hydrological conditions determined the richness and diversity of the flora. About 70% of plants, which can be noticed in our entire republic, grow in this relatively small area (more than 1000 species of embryophyte vascular plants, about 270 species of bryophytes, more than 290 species of lichens). As in the whole temperate zone, herbaceous species (92%) prevail in number over tree ones.
Trees. Pine, spruce, petiolate oak, hornbeam, black alder, ash, aspen, European and white birch, maple are the most common out of the 25 species of trees growing in Belovezhskaya Pushcha. Silver fir and durmast oak can be found in the natural state here, which are listed in the Red Book of the Republic and are known in Belarus only from Belovezhskaya Pushcha.
Shrubs. There are 38 species of shrubs in Pushcha. These are filbert, buckthorn, rhamnus, viburnum, juniper, spindle tree, raspberry, blackberry, honeyberry, various willows, wineberry, and rare for the republic mountain birch stocky, whortleberry willow and other species.



Herbaceous plants. There are 80% perennials among herbaceous plants. Annuals and biennials are more common on arable lands, roadsides, clearings. A special group is formed by ephemerals among them, which lifetimes from germination to maturation of seeds do not exceed two to three months. Therefore it is possible to see such plants as whiteblow or mustard weed for only 2-3 months. For the same short period of time, some herbaceous perennials-ephemeroids (anemone, partlet, gagea and ramson onions, isopyrum, lesser cenandine, etc.) appear in spring, which are characteristic of forest communities.
In addition to the overwhelming majority of plants living by photosynthesis, there are hemiparasites (eyebright, cow-wheat, rattlepot, mistletoe, etc.) which receive water with salts dissolved in it, sucking to the roots of other plants, as well as parasites (dodder, toothwort), not having chlorophyll and colored in a pale yellow or dirty pink color. Like the parasitic plants, there are also a few saprophytic plants (bird’s-nest orchid and pinesap), feeding on decaying plant remains. Sundew which grow on upland swamps and pemphigus which live in water supplement their "menu" by digesting the caught insects.

Plants grow in the territory in accordance with biological features, requirements for environmental condition and competitive ability. Bilberry, barberry, beadruby, and starflower, which able to grow in different ecological conditions, are widespread in Belovezhskaya Pushcha. At the same time, a number of species with specific requirements for growing conditions are rare (sharp-petaled wintergreen, fir clubmoss).

Xerocolous xerophyte plants (red-tailed fescue grass, thyme, felon herb) grow in understocked pine forests on dry sandy soils, economically consuming moisture. Moisture-hygrophytes (corn flag, water loosestrife, sedge) are characteristic for the excessively moistened alders. Nemoral species are common in oak and hornbeam, maple and linden forests: goutweed, sweet woodruff, thunderflower. You can find rosemary, cranberry, blueberry, and narrow-leaved cotton grass on sphagnous swamps. Water soldier and pondweed, water lilies and egg-pod are representatives of the aquatic flora.
One of the most important tasks of the national park is gene pool preservation of rare plant species and protection of their natural habitats. There are 59 species of higher vascular plants included in the Red Book of the Republic on the territory of Belovezhskaya Pushcha. Many of them in Pushcha are located within the boundaries of areals, or are relics of past epochs with a different climate. Previously, they had a more extensive distribution. But with climate change and growth condition they have preserved only in some, suitable for their lives, refugium-shelters. Special distinction among the Pushcha rarities are bear onion (or ramson), often forming dense thickets on the elevations among swamps and in shady broad-leaved forests, as well bastard balm with large flowers and a peculiar aroma, which is often called "balsam" for medicinal properties.

One of the most beautiful species is globeflower decorated with large golden-yellow flowers (up to 5 centimeters in diameter), mountain arnica with bright orange-yellow flowers, Gladiolus imbricatus with bright violet inflorescences, Ryuysha's dragon’s head, which blue flowers stand out among motley grasses. The only wild lily in the flora of Belarus – Turk’s-cap lily can be found in deciduous and mixed broad-leaved forests. It is also called martagon lily or saranka. And its name "royal curls" it received because of the flowers with bent up pink petals, reminiscent of curls. Representatives of the orchid family are an ornament of the flora thanks to marvelous elegance of flowers, give it a unique beauty and originality. Royal helleborine, phantom orchid, Neottianthe cucullata grow in deciduous and mixed forests, Baltic and May orchis - on flooded plains, double-leaf hides in swampy fir groves. There is orchid in the forest too – lady’s slipper, with the largest (up to 6 centimeters) flowers which have vanilla smell.

In humid hornbeam and spruce forests you can occasionally find common ivy - the only evergreen liana in our latitudes and the only representative of the Araliaceae family in the Belarusian flora. This is a living witness of the epochs and times when the climate of this territory was much warmer.

Bryophytes. They are a very ancient group of plants, growing in a wide range of environmental conditions. The Red Book of Belarus includes 15 species of this group, one third of which lives in Pushcha.
Mosses are an integral part of the Pushcha landscapes. They settle not only in the soil, but also cover the lower part of tree trunks, stones and decaying crushed wood, and the largest moss – fountain moss - grows even on ponds. Moss carpets and cushions give the ancient forest a fabulous color.
Dikranum moss and red-stemmed feather moss almost completely carpet-cover the soil with the wavy and bizarrely curved stems. On the most warmed and lighted places there are clumps of bluish-green juniper haircap. Where the soil is somewhat wetter and richer, delicate Hylocomium moss settles. It is often accompanied by a similar ostrich-plume feather moss similar to miniature ferns branches. The landscape of pine-spruce forests is diversified by faded bluish-green dense cushions of the Leucobryum. Decorative qualities of this moss were put to use in gardening and in "Japanese" rockeries.

Green clumps of haircap grow in lowlands with permanent moistening, and moisture-loving mosses from the Mnium family, which turfs consist of thin stems with tender leaves, settle in shady spruce and spruce-broadleaved forests in richer soils. They and other hygrophytes form an integral component of swamped alders and ash trees. Sphagnum mosses reign supreme in upper swamps.

Lichens. The ancient Pushcha forest is rich in lichens. The predominant part of rare lichens of Belarus (15 species out of 17) grows in Belovezhskaya Pushcha. They are adapted to the most unfavorable environmental conditions, excessive dryness of substratum and air, an abrupt temperature change, can exist where other organisms do not live. Plain externally, lichens are the first to colonize nutrient-poor substrata and subsequently create the basis for the settlement of other plants.
Typical representatives of foliose lichens (there are 70 species in the forest) are lungwort, growing on the trunks and branches of various tree species and Peltigera canina, settling usually in the soil near tree trunks or on decaying stumps, which have a thallus in the form of rounded blade plates along the edges, attached to the substratum with filiform outgrowths (rhizoids).

Cup lichen species which grow in pine forests in open sunny places refer to bushy lichens (67 species), which really resemble branched bushes. In the far north, in the tundra zone, their fragile greyish or greenish bushes form a continuous cover and serve under the name of "yagel".

Icelandic cetrarium ("Icelandic moss") is noteworthy by its medical properties among the bushy lichens, which forms shaggy broad-blade bushes in dry pine forests, and the most unusual and beautiful are the Usnea species, hanging from the branches of trees in the form of peculiar "beards" and giving the forest a fairy-tale appearance.

But most often crustaceous lichens (155 species) can be found in Belovezhskaya Pushcha, which are not always noticeable for an unsophisticated eye. They densely grow to a substratum in a crust form and sometimes are surprisingly original. For example, Graphis scripta grows on the trunks and branches of deciduous trees, which has the form of a fine-grained olive-gray crust where the smallest fruit bodies form a pattern similar to ancient writings. On granite boulders there are often clearly delineated lemon or greenish-yellow spots formed by Rizocarpone geographicum, and on the bare wood – gray and white crusts of Lecanora allophana.

This group of plants is resistant not only to unfavorable climatic conditions, but even to ultraviolet doses and gamma radiation, which are deadly for most organisms. At the same time, they can not stand air pollution and are good indicators of the environment purity.

Mushrooms. The many-faced world of mushrooms of Belovezhskaya Pushcha is not yet sufficiently studied. About 600 species vegetation of various mushrooms is explored in the Belarusian part, among which the majority are agaric and tree-destroying species. More than 60 species of Erysiphales, which cause plant diseases have been identified.

Most mushrooms do their work invisibly. You can see them only with a microscope. But there are species which form large fruit bodies – actually, that’s what is called mushrooms in everyday life. In the early spring, when snow still lies in the hollows, bright and scarlet saucers of cup mushrooms stand out on a half-decayed crushed wood or directly on a forest cover. A little later, morels appear on edges and small meadows of deciduous forests and saddles in pine forests. In June "kolosoviki" begin to grow – birch, yellow and summer boletus. The true diversity of the fungi kingdom can be seen only in late summer. Boletus and Lactarius, Leccinum and milk-caps, honey fungus and moss agate, russula and sharp agaric all as if ask to be put in a basket. Many edible mushrooms, such as slimy spike-cap, blue foot, red cap or gypsy mushroom are rarely collected, as they are not known to mushroom pickers. After all, the mistake of a mushroom picker is sometimes similar to the mistake of a sapper. Indeed, there are many not only inedible representatives of the mushroom family in the forest because of their bitter or burning taste, but also deadly poisonous mushrooms. Sometimes they warn with a bright coloration of their properties (fly agarics), sometimes they look quite innocuous (sulphur tuft, death cup amanita, similar to green russula).

In the old Pushcha forest there are a lot of bracket fungi. Their appearance on living trees shows the tree affection by rot. As a result, it will crumble and be processed by mushrooms and bacteria. Turned into humus, its wood will serve as a fertilizer for other generations of the forest.Some fungal rarities may also open up to the inquisitive eye. After all, out of 17 species of fungi in Belovezhskaya Pushcha , which are listed in the Red Book of the Republic, only 8 are known. Among them are Sparassis crispa or cauliflower fungus, growing at the base of pine trees trunks in the old-aged pine forests, monkey head, resembling a large needle-like frost covered with laces, Grifola frondosa or ram’s head and popular in folk medicine stinkhorn. The last-named fungus has an ovoid fruiting body, from which later a spongy stem, sprouts carrying a cap covered with green mucus and having a carrion scent. Flies and other insects carrying spores of the fungus fly to it.

Forest plantations. Belovezhskaya Pushcha is a unique natural site where the diversity of Belarusian forests is represented, both in terms of species composition, age structure, productivity and by types of forest and conditions of habitat. According to the forest management data for 2005, 78% of the forest area is covered with forests, of which only about 15% are artificial plantings. The average age of forests is almost 90 years, the maximum reaches 200-300 years (depending on the tree species), and individual giant trees survive to 400-600 years. More than 50% of woodlands are ripe and over-mature forests. The Pushcha forests are unique. They have special features characteristic of natural primitive forests in many respects: those are a specific age and spatial structure, rich species composition, the presence of a large number of old-aged giant trees and a number of other features. Coniferous forests predominate (67%) in Belovezhskaya Pushcha. Pine and spruce form both pure and mixed forests with broad-leaved and small-leaved species. Forests with a predominance of Scotch pine, which can grow in different soil conditions (from dry sand hills to upland swamps) occupy 63% of the area covered by forest. Almost all types of pine forests of Belarus are found in Belovezhskaya Pushcha. The age of the pine forests reaches 220-240 years, and individual trees live up to 300-350 years. More than 3/4 pine forests Pushcha are represented by mature (141-180 years), overmature (181-240 years) and middle-aged (41-100 years) woodlands. Young (up to 40 years) are most often found in cultures.
The forests which are dominated by common spruce occupy more than 4% of the forest area. In addition, spruce is common in the impurity or undergrowth of other forest formations. High numbers of ungulates, eating young undergrowth of other breeds contribute to strengthening spruce position. The average age of spruce forests of Belovezhskaya Pushcha is 112 years, the maximum age is about 200 years, and individual trees live up to 300-350 years. Spruce forests are mainly middle-aged (61-100 years old) and mature (121-160 years old) woodlands. Young (up to 40 years) and overmature (over 160 years) forests occupy small areas. Recently, spruce forests have suffered significantly because of the mass reproduction of an insect-pest - a bark beetle.

Silver fir is a Central European relict form. Its habitat is a small island among the drained swamps with an area of about 14 hectares, which is remote by 100-120 km from the northeastern border of the main habitat area. At the present time only 21 mature fir trees have preserved there at the age of 90-140 years. But this form is well-fruitful and gives abundant seedage. Several plantations have been laid for its settlement in Belovezhskaya Pushcha.
Broad-leaved (hard-leaved) forests occupy 5.3% of the total woodland area in Pushcha. Petiolate oak predominate among them (3.6%) in oak groves, which grows on rich brown forest soils. These are the most old-aged forests of Belarus, in which about 75% are forests aged over 160 years (their average age). Oak forests of about 300 years old are not uncommon with individual 400-600 year-old oak-giants. In addition to petiolate oak, a relic durmast oak listed in the Red Book of Belarus grows in the area of more than 1000 hectares in Belovezhskaya Pushcha. Pushcha is the eastern margin of its settlement on plains.

The second place by area (0.9%) among broad-leaved species is occupied by hornbeam woodlands, which prefer rich sandy loam soils underlain by clay. These are various ages forests (10-180 years) with an average age of about 85 years. Hornbeam forests are derived plantations and were formed, as a rule, at the site of broad-leaved and coniferous-deciduous forests. Pure hornbeam groves are quite rare. Oak, spruce and other tree species usually take part in their composition.

Indigenous ash trees grow in about 0.7% of the woodland area. They are confined to the old river floodplains with increased flowing moisture and grow on rich moist sandy loam soils, often forming mixed woodlands with other species. The average age of ashen forests is 140, and the maximum age is 180 years. In recent years, unfavorable processes of mass ash drying have been observed as a result of the fact that its weakened trees are affected by root and heart rot due to the parasitic fungi development.

Maple forests in Pushcha are derived from oak forests and occupy only 107 hectares on fairly rich, optimally moistened soils. Since they originated in the place of old-aged oak groves, they usually contain a considerable number of ancient giant trees. The average age of maple woodlands is about 145 years. Only hornbeam and ash are renewed under their canopy. Maple formation, along with linden, belongs to rare types of forest vegetation. A complex of rare grassy plants often grows here, which is characteristic of the natural broad-leaved forests of Pushcha, many rarities of the European flora live here as well.

The small-leaved (soft-leaved) forests of Belovezhskaya Pushcha make up 27.7% and are represented by plantings of black alder (15.8%), white birch (3.3%), warty birch (7.6%), aspen (1.0%) and linden. They are often derived from indigenous forest sites (especially the latter two types) and are associated with windfall places and natural overgrowth of abandoned fields and dry meadows.

Black alder and white birch forests represent a group of indigenous greenwood swamp forests. Alder forests grow on sufficiently water-logged flow areas of lowland swamps with rich soils. Their average age is 80 years, and the maximum is 150 years. More than half of the stands have passed into the stage of ripe and overripe (80 years and older). Young ones up to 20 years occupy a minor area. The average participation of alder in these stands is quite high - more than 80%. The renewal under its canopy consists of spruce, less often ash, alder, hornbeam, linden.

White birch forests are confined to poorer soils with constant moistening. Their stands’ average age is 60 years, the maximum age is 120 years. About a third of them underwent drainage in the 50-60s of the last century.Warty birch forests have an average age of 60 years, and the maximum age is 110 years. Ripe and overripe (more than 80 years) birch forests make up 17%. The average age of aspen forests is 65 years, and the maximum age is 110 years. Stands at the age of 60 years and older prevail (83%). Young (under 20 years) are practically absent.
Linden forests, like maple ones, are also formed on rich soils and replaced by oak groves in the course of long successions. They occupy only 14 hectares. Their average age is about 60 years. The stands structure includes small-leaved linden, petiolate oak, Norway maple, spruce, hornbeam.
Meadow type of vegetation (about 5% of the territory) in Belovezhskaya Pushcha, as well as in the entire forest zone, is a derivative anthropogenic landscape component. If you do not tend cattle or stop mowing for a long time in meadow areas, they overgrow with bushes and subsequently transform into forest communities. Besides, almost half of them relate to lowland meadows. Usually they are located next to forest or open lowland swamps, they are similar with them in soils and strongly waterlogged. First of all, sedges reign there. In the most humid areas there are thickets of large sedges – swamp sedge, beaked, Carex pseudoacutiformis, Carex elata. In less humid areas smaller sedges grow: black, yellow, carnation, alternating with grass thickets - meadow tussock grass (pickerel), reed grass, fescue meadow. Among sedges and grasses you can meet bean trefoil, cowslip, cowberry, creeping buttercup, lady’s belt, and corn flag raises xiphoidal leaves upwards.

Thin creeping stems of swamp bedstraw and braid space between larger plants.

Floodplain grass high-sedge meadows are located in river floodplains and are flooded during high water. They are characterized by a hummocky relief and a grassy cover of high sedges, characteristic of lowland meadows. There are many large grasses here – red sweet, reed canary, bulrush. Tussock grass, purple reed and other grasses can be found here. Wild grasses are represented by swamp bedstraw, various horsetails and buttercups, lady’s belt, etc.

Dry herb-grass meadows are found in small sectors on relief elevations among lowland meadows. Their dense grassy cover consists mainly of grass family. Common vernal grass which gives a specific flavor to newly mowed hay, red fescue, timothy grass. Tussock grass can be found, which starts to dominate the communities with bulrush and horsetail with a high stocking level. Small sedges and rich herbs are characteristic for such meadows. In June cuckooflower blooms with delicate cut flowers, often creating a pink aspect; Dutch morgan stand out in white islets, in common called daisy. Sour dock, chimney sweep, shamrock, rattlepots, lady’s bedstraw and dozens of other species also diversify the multicolor of a dry meadow.

Wetlands are complex natural ecosystems which combine the features of a lake and land. Their characteristic feature is the presence of peat and an abundance of water. From 80 to 95% of water is contained in peat itself. The total area of ​​swamps uncovered with forest makes up more than 7% of the territory. Most of all large swamps, with an area of ​​more than 25 hectares, can be found only in the northeastern Pushcha part. The main part of wetlands (98%) refers to lowland, which feed with groundwater. Moisture-loving hummock-creating sedges dominate here (Carex elata, tussock, swamp sedge), sometimes forming extensive thickets. Sedge sites intersperse with fern thickets of swamp ferns, grasses. Plenty of motley grass as well: bean trefoil, cowslip, swamp bedstraw, corn flag, buttercups, horsetails. Mosses sometimes intersperse in the space between them.There are almost no open wetlands in Pushcha (only 0.4%). Most often these are clearings in sphagnum pine forests on watersheds, which is why they got their name. Their soils are very poor, so only unpretentious to growing conditions plants can survive here. The main ones are sphagnum mosses, which completely cover a swamp with sod. The lower part of the moss plants dies as it grows and forms sour peat, which is poor in mineral salts.

Great blueberry, cranberry creeping along a sphagnum carpet, and swamp ledum with its stupefying aroma are the most famous of shrubs and small bushes growing on upland swamps. Less noticeable, but common on upland swamps is andromeda (bog rosemary) - a shrub of the heather family with soft pink flower bells. Cotton grass is typical for herbs, which blossoms early in the spring, and by summer hangs its tender white puffs over a swamp, which are mistaken for flowers. Among its hummocks you can find an amazing plant - lustwort, which replenishes the lack of nutrients with caught insects.

A somewhat larger area (1.6%) is occupied by transitional wetlands. They combine the features of lowland and upland swamps. Both groundwater and atmospheric precipitation are involved in their nutrition. The vegetation of the transitional swamps is characterized by a poorer flora compared with the lowland, but richer in comparison with the upland swamps. About half of these wetlands have no woody vegetation, the rest are covered with rare pine groves and willow trees with white birches.

A great importance of wetlands in preserving the biological diversity of not only plants, but also animals, especially birds is worth noting.

Species listed in the "Red Book" of the Republic of Belarus
LIST OF RARE SPECIES OF WILD PLANTS AND MUSHROOMS INCLUDED IN THE RED BOOK OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS AND FREQUENT IN THE TERRITORY OF BELOVEZHSKAYA PUSHCHA


MUSHROOMS

Species name

English/Latin

National protection status

IUCN category

Yellow earth tongue

Spathularia clavata (Schaeft.)

II

EN

Summer truffle

Tuber aestivum Vitt.

II

EN

Grove waxy cap

Hygrophorus nemoreus (Pers.) Fr.

II

EN

Gray chanterelle

Cantharellus cinereus (Pers.: Fr.) Fr

III

VU

Pistillate goatsbeard

Clavariadelphus pistillaris (Fr.)

III

VU

Cauliflower

Sparassis crispa (Wulfen: Fr.) Fr.

III

VU

Beefstake polypore

Fistulina hepatica Fr.

II

EN

Lingzhi mushroom

(reishi mushroom)

Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst.

III

VU

Fragile macrodon

Dentipellis fragilis (Pers.: Fr.) Donk

II

EN

Hericium, or coral tooth mushroom

Hericium coralloides (Scop.: Fr.) Pers.

III

VU

Hen-of-the-woods (ram’s head)

Grifola frondosa (Fr.) S. F. Gray

III

VU

Cinnabar polypore

Pycnoporus cinnabarinus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Karst.

II

EN

Reddish polypore (pink bolete)

Polyporus roseus (Alb. & Schwein.) Fr.

II

EN

Umbrella polypore

Grifola umbellata (Fr.) Pil.

III

VU



LICHENS

Species name

English/Latin

National protection status

IUCN category

Spike lichen

Calicium adspersum Pers.

III

VU

Pin lichen

Chaenotheca chlorella (Ach.) Mull.-Arg.

IV

NT

Rat’s whiskers

Chaenotheca gracilenta (Ach.) Mattson-Midd.

II

EN

Madrepora pagnotta

Cladonia caespitica (Pers.) Florke

I

CR

Oak lichen

Hypotrchyna revoluta (Florke) Hale

II

EN

Powdered camouflage lichen

Melanelia sorediata (Ach.) Goward & Ahti

IV

NT

Hole-punch lichen

Menegazzia terebrata (Hoffm.) A.Massal

IV

NT

Bran lichen

Parmeliopsis hyperopta (Ach.) Arnold.

III

VU

Forest speckleback lichen

Punctelia subrudecta (Nyl.) Krog

I

CR

Tree moss

Usnea certain Ach.

II

EN

Florida beard lichen

Usnea florida (L.) Wigg.

III

VU

Giant shield lichen

Cetrelia cetrarioides (Del. ex Duby) W.L.

III

VU

Fork lichen

Evernia divaricata (L.) Ach.

III

VU

Angel’s hair

Ramalina thrausta (Ach.) Nyl.

III

VU

Lungwort

Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm.

III

VU

Pelt lichen

Peltigera horizontalis  (Huds.) Baumg.

II

EN

Limestone scaly pelt

Peltigera lepidophora (Nyl. ex Vain.) Bitter

II

EN



BRYOPHYTES

Species name

English/Latin

National protection status

IUCN category

Liverwort

Cephalosia catenulate (Hueb.) Lindb.

III

VU

Madotheca moss

Porella platyphylla (L.) Lindb.

III

VU

Lantern moss

Andreaea rupestris Hedw.

I

CR

Lyell’s Orthotrichum moss

Orthotrichum lyellii

II

EN

Green wind-blown moss

Dicranum viride (Sull. et Lesq. in Sull.) Lindb.

III

VU


HIGHER VASCULAR PLANTS

Species name

English/Latin

National protection status

IUCN category

Great masterwort

Astrantia major L.

I

CR

Musk orchid

Herminium monorchis (L.) R. Br

I

CR

Lady’s slipper

Cypripedium calceolus L.

I

EN

Swamp saxifrage

Saxifraga hirculus L.

I

CR

European buttercup

Cimicifuga europaea Schipcz.

I

CR

Globeflower

Neottianthe cucullata (L.) Schlechter

I

VR

Peat sedge

Carex heleonastes Ehrh.

I

CR

Silver fir

Abies alba Mill.

I

CR

Mountain viola (high)

Viola montana L.

I

EN

European wood-barley

Hordelymus europaeus (L.) Harz

I

CR

Lyly ladybell

Adenophora lilifolia (L.) A. Dc

II

EN

Daisyleaf grape-fern

Botrychium matricariifolium (A. Br. ex Dцll) Koch.

II

EN

Durmast

Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl

II

EN

Black salsify

Scorzonera purpurea L.

II

VU

Beneken’s chess grass

Bromopsis benekenii (Lange) Holub

II

NT

Early coralroot

Corallorhiza trifida Chatel.

II

EN

Chives

Allium schoenoprasum L.

II

EN

Karl’s lousewort

Pedicularis sceptrum-carolinum L.

II

VU

White adder’s mouth

Malaxis monophyllos (L.) Sw.

II

EN

Club sedge

Carex buxbaumii Wahlenb.

II

EN

Common ivy

Hedera helix L.

II

EN

Meadow-rue-leaved isopyrum

Isopyrum thalictroides L.

II

EN

Double-leaf

Listera cordata (L.) R. Br.

II

EN

Siberian oatgrass

Trisetum sibiricum Rupr.

II

VU

Lesser water-parchip

Berula erecta (Huds.) Cov.

III

VU

Bride’s feathers

Aruncus vulgaris Rafin.

III

VU

Leathery grapefern

Botrychium multifidum (S.G. Gmel.) Rupr

III

VU

Royal Helleborine

Epipactis atrorubens (Hoffm. Ex Bernh.) Bess

III

VU

Fleshy starwort

Stellaria crassifolia Ehrh.

III

VU

Mountain St-John’s wort

Hypericum montanum L.

III

VU

Ruisha’s dragonhead

Dracocephalum ruyschiana L.

III

VU

Swamp willow

Salix myrtilloides L.

III

VU

Bastard balm

Melittis sarmatica Klok.

III

VU

Wild cranberry

Oxycoccus microcarpus Turcz. Ex Rupr.

III

VU

Fragrant orchid

Gymnаdenia conopsea (L.) R. Br

III

VU

White water lily

Nymphaea alba L.

III

VU

White barren strawberry

Potentilla alba L.

III

VU

Bear’s onion, or ramson

Allium ursinum L.

III

VU

Greater butterfly orchid

Platanthera chlorantha (Cust.) Reichenb.

III

VU

Hairy lungwort

Pulmonaria mollis Wulf. ex Hornem.

III

VU

St-Olaf’s candlestick

Moneses uniflora (L.) A. Gray

III

VU

Fan orchid

Dactylorhiza majalis (Reichenb.) P.F.Hunt Et Summerhayes

III

VU

Slender cottonsedge

Eriophorum gracile Koch.

III

VU

Red Helleborine

Cephalanthera rubra (L.) Rich.

III

VU

Common burdock

Arctium nemorosum Lej.

III

VU

Lesser hawk’s beard

Crepis mollis (Jacq.) Aschers.

III

VU

Foxfeet

Huperzia selago (L.) Bernh. ex Schrank Et C. Mart.

IV

NT

German bloom

Genista germanica L.

IV

NT

Coralwort

Dentaria bulbifera L.

IV

NT

Siberian iris

Iris sibirica L.

IV

NT

Double buttercup

Trollius europaeus L.

IV

NT

Swamp clubmoss

Lycopodiella inundata (L.) Holub

IV

NT

Turk’s cap lily (martagon lily)

Lilium martagon L.

IV

NT

Twin flower

Linnaea borealis L.

IV

NT

Common polypody

Polypodium vulgare L.

IV

NT

Tall bromegrass

Festuca altissima All.

IV

NT

Umbrella sedge

Carex umbrosa Host.

IV

NT

Meadow pasqueflower

Pulsatilla pratensis (L.) Mill. S. L.

IV

NT

Egg-pod twayblade

Listera ovata (L.) R. Br

IV

NT

Corn flag (gladiolus)

Gladiolus imbricatus L.

IV

NT

Wind flower

Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill.

IV

NT



IUCN categories:

CR – species in critical condition

EN – species in danger of extinction

VU – threatened species

NT – close to extinction species

КК – Red Book of the Republic